The issues of the use of mother tongue (L1) in foreign language (L2) classroom have been debated among researchers for many years. In other word, there have been various shifts to and from the utilization of L1 in Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) classroom over the last decades. The issue of the use of Arabic language as a medium instruction is a major concern in the process of teaching and learning. But to what extent the use of Arabic language in teaching is still questionable among educators. Similarly, the effectiveness of its use in teaching is still in the review process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of the Arabic language in the classroom by teachers. Data was collected based on the observation and interviews on the teachers that teach Arabic language in school. The respondents of this study were two student-teachers. The findings showed that student-teachers used more Arabic words compared to Malay words in their teaching. The major reason of their use of L1 in the L2 classroom is to motivate students and to ensure that they feel less stressed in studying target language.
Removal of Cd (II) onto Raphanus sativus peels biomass: Equlibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics.
Raphanus sativus peels (RSP) biomass for the adsorptive removal of Cadmium (II) has been studied. The effect of different experimental parameter like pH, temperature, contact time, and initial concentration has been reported. The equilibrium adsorption data were subjected to different adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Flory-Huggins isotherm, and Brunauer, Emmet and Teller isotherms), for kinetic studies pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Banghams’s model, and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were applied. The experimental results indicated that the adsorption of Cd(II) followed monolayer adsorption model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The change in thermodynamic parameters like free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) was also evaluated. It was found that the RSP exhibits good adsorption capacity for Cadmium (II) from aqueous solution.
Rupture of the thyroid gland is uncommon in cases of blunt neck
trauma. We report a case of thyroid rupture after a motor vehicle
accident in a patient without a preexisting goiter. He presented with a
painful anterior neck swelling associated with dysphagia and
hoarseness of voice. Computed tomographic scans showed lacerations
of the right thyroid lobe and isthmus with features suggestive of slow
active bleeding. Neck exploration was subsequently performed, and a
ruptured right thyroid lobe was found with ongoing venous
hemorrhage. A right hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the
patient recovered without complications.
Application of genetic algorithm in optimization of unified power flow controller parameters and its location in the power system network.
This work demonstrates the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique for the simultaneous stabilization of power systems using a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The GA is applied to find the optimal location of the UPFC and to tune its control parameters under different operating conditions. The problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem which aims at maximizing the damping ratio of the electromechanical modes using different lines fitted with the UPFC. The approach is successfully tested on the 16-machine 68-bus New England–New York interconnected system and on the Iraqi National Super Grid System (INSGS) to validate its effectiveness in the damping of local and inter-area modes of oscillations. In addition, the proposed approach demonstrated better performance when compared to a fuzzy-based UPFC damping controller.
Significant Characteristics of Scheduled and Condition-Based Maintenance in Office Building
Sustainability of buildings is one of the main aims in the construction industry. In achieving sustainability, maintenance of buildings and its facilities, which include planning, implementation, and outcome of maintenance activities, becomes an important criterion. This paper aims to identify the significant characteristics of scheduled and condition-based maintenance in office buildings through reviews of relevant literature and a questionnaire survey. The significance of the characteristics was identified through ranking analysis. A semistructured interview was conducted to obtain further details on the characteristics and measures to enhance efficiency of the characteristics. The findings reveal that the dominant characteristics for scheduled maintenance include quality of spare part and material, the level of labor skill and knowledge, and budget allocation for maintenance labor, whereas for condition-based maintenance, the dominant characteristics are the level of manager skill and knowledge, reliability of maintenance data, and financial allocation for the maintenance manager. The study concludes that these dominant characteristics should be considered in the implementation of maintenance strategies.