Recent evidence has linked illegal peat and forest ﬁres in Indonesia to commercial oil palm
plantations. Fire is the most cost-efﬁcient way to clear land for planting, but these ﬁres release smoke
which results in transboundary haze pollution. The countries worst affected by the haze are
neighbouring Malaysia and Singapore. Malaysian and Singaporean investors control more than
two-thirds of the Indonesian oil palm plantation sector and they have been implicated in the ﬁres
alongside local plantations. Using information obtained from interviews among individuals linked to
the sector, this paper aims to explain why these companies continue to burn despite the dire
consequences of the haze. It identiﬁes patronage politics as a common business culture in Southeast
Asia, and argues that because these Malaysian and Singaporean investors are already familiar with
patronage practices at home, they have easily inserted themselves into existing patronage networks
in Indonesia. Hence, these companies enjoyed the protection of their Indonesian patrons during their
operations. Furthermore, in a business atmosphere deﬁned by patronage politics, clients are largely
motivated by material gain. This explains why Malaysian and Singaporean investors continue to clear
land by ﬁre in the interests of cost-efﬁciency, despite their home countries suffering the worst effects
Rapid microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of nanosized silver-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties
Synthesis of nanosized particles of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) as an antibacterial agent is of potential importance in managing infections associated with surgical implants. However, the process of synthesizing this agent is time consuming and inefficient. To overcome this problem, a rapid method for synthesizing nano-sized Ag-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) [Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2] (x=0.03–0.5) using microwave irradiation for 10 min at 800 W is proposed. The materials were characterized using XRD, FTIR, FESEM and EDX. Antibacterial behavior of the Ag-HA samples were evaluated using disc diffusion technique and results demonstrated good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.
Patronage Politics and Natural Resources: A
Case Study of Southeast Asia and Indonesia.
As the modernisation of agribusiness became a more important driver of development for many Southeast Asian states, the region’s environment has become severely degraded. This paper argues that throughout the developmental history of Southeast Asia, the role of patronage politics has been a key factor behind environmental degradation. It presents historical evidence of circumstances preceding and surrounding early appearances of patronage networks in the region, particularly within the natural resource sector. Upon decolonization, the attitudes of the decision-making elite of the region shaped development to focus on elite-centred natural resource exploitation. With government structures, processes and policies often favouring the interests of big businesses, environmental exploitation has remained the major drivers of growth in the region. First, this paper provides a general overview of developmental trends in the region to show how political realities encouraged patronage politics, and then focuses on Indonesia as a select case study. This paper is part one of a two-part series by the same author, the second part of which will focus on Malaysia and Singapore and will be published in a subsequent volume of this journal.
The ASEAN Way and Haze Mitigation at the ASEAN
Transboundary haze pollution is an almost annual occurrence in Southeast Asia. Haze originates from peat and forest fires mostly in Indonesia, with Malaysia and Singapore suffering the worst of its effects. Most of these fires are manmade, and linked to land clearing activities of local and foreign commercial oil palm plantations. The regional nature of haze has concentrated mitigation activities at the ASEAN level. However these initiatives continually fail to effectively mitigate haze. This article argues that haze mitigation has been problematic due to the ASEAN style of regional engagement, which prioritizes the maintenance of national sovereignty. States are compelled to act in their national interests, as opposed to the collective regional interests. The economic importance of the oil palm sector to the states involved, coupled with traditionally close relationships between key economic actors and political elites, meant that the maintenance of the status quo, where major plantation companies could continue to clear land using the cost-effective method of burning, was of crucial national interest. Therefore, the ASEAN style of regional engagement has enabled member states to shape ASEAN initiatives to preserve the interests of these political and economic elite, while the public continue to suffer the haze.
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THE CHALANGES OF DAW'AA ISLAMIAH IN THE ERA OF
GLOBALIZATION, ITS IMPACT ON AND CHALANGES TO DA‘WA ISLAMIYYAH
Globalization is regarded as a powerful force in the world today and there are consensus among many researches that globalization today is the evolution of the world in its aspects, cultural, economic, political, social over the past fifty years. The impact of Globalization can be seen in the individual’s world views as well as on cultural and social norms and values. Globalization today become one of the major challenges to Da‘wah Islamiyyah (Religious Propagation). In these situation, Da‘wah Islamiyyah requires to explore and implement new methodology and approach to face globalization outcome.
This analytical study aims to address Da‘wah Islamiyah challenges in the era of Globalization.
The findings outlines five general challenges have faced Da‘wah Islamiyah: in the era of Globalization: An Appropriate Da‘wah strategy, Intellectuals and philanthropists with innovative mindset, Mass communication and information companies, Economic and Education community, Specialized and Active NGO’s.