This article explores the implications of the knowledge society for education and education systems. It focuses on how education systems in Asia are contributing to the development and sustainability of the knowledge society through creating powerful
professional learning communities. The article explores how professional collaboration, at scale, is being used to generate social capital in order to promote educational transformation and improvement. The article draws upon a range of theoretical
perspectives to examine how professional learning communities are contributing to educational improvement and the construction of new knowledge. The article concludes by arguing that disciplined, collective and inter-dependent learning is critical for the knowledge society to be sustained.
Distributed Leadership and Digital Collaboration A Synergistic Relationship?
This paper explores the synergy between distributed leadership and digital collaborative learning. It argues that distributed leadership offers an important theoretical lens for understanding and explaining how digital collaboration is best supported and led.
Drawing upon evidence from two online educational platforms, the paper explores the challenges of leading and facilitating digital collaborative learning. The paper concludes that distributed leadership is integral to effective digital collaboration and is an important determinant of productive collaboration in a virtual environment.
The study of reproductive behavior and embryonic developments of Neopomacentrus cyanomos
Regal demoiselle Neopomacentrus cyanomos belongs to the subfamily Pomacentrinae of family Pomacentridae. 50 individuals of this species were reared in laboratory aquaria to observe reproductive behaviors. Before courtship, the dominant male chose suitable substrate and cleared away the debris frequently. Among one reproductive event, a male N. cyanomos mated with 3-4 females, and constantly moved outside of the spawning substrate area to attract females, with its black body color taking on a pattern of grey stripes at that time. After spawning, the male protected the fertilized eggs until hatching. During the 47 days of records dating from 21 June to 6 August 2004, the regal demoiselle ovulated five times, and mature female spawned once every 5~13 days (8 ± 4 days), each time produced about 3210~3560 eggs. These adhesion demersal eggs were translucent and shaped like gourds. Length of eggs was 1.27 ± 0.06 mm (n = 66), egg diameter was 0.5 ± 0.02 mm, length of yolk-sac was 0.75 ± 0.03 mm and maximum oil globule was 0.17 ±
0.02 mm. The developments of cleavage, morula, gastrula stage, and embryonic body
were recorded. After 19.5 hours, optic vesicles and auditory vesicles were visible
sequentially, and the embryo’s somites turned obvious. After 35 hours, the embryo’s
head turned to the top position of the egg. After 84 hours, eyes turned blackish. After
108 hours, larvae broke the eggs and hatched out. The larval body length was 2.85 ±
0.12 mm (n =10).
Physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain among Australian hospital-based nurses.
Objective To assess the personal, physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain in Australian hospital-based nurses.
Methods Wrist or hand pain, associated disability and sickness absence, demographic, occupational, physical, psychosocial and personal factors among nurses working for three hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Factors associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month were assessed using logistic regression.
Results This analysis was based on 1111 participants. The prevalence of wrist or hand pain in the past month was 15.3%. Repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.84), high job strain (1.54, 1.04 to 2.28), job insecurity (1.55, 1.04 to 2.28), somatisation tendency (2.73, 1.75 to 4.26), pain catastrophising (1.56, 1.03 to 2.37), better mental (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99) and physical (0.96, 0.94-0.98) health and well-being were associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month, after adjusting for possible confounding factors. When all significant factors were examined in the same model, repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (2.50, 1.71 to 3.67), somatisation (2.61, 1.65 to 4.13) and better physical health and well-being (0.96, 0.94 to 0.99) remained independently associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month.
Conclusions This study highlights that wrist or hand pain is prevalent in hospital nurses. Workplace physical factors and personal factors were associated with wrist or hand pain. Further longitudinal investigation is needed to examine the predictive nature of these factors.
Under the new Malaysian Education Development Plan 2013 – 2025, one of the initiatives to be implemented is teacher professional development through peer supervision. The Ministry aims to create a culture of excellence through collegial supervision in schools. Teacher leaders become mentors and guide, develop and present best practices, and build a system of continuous professional development through school based instructional supervision. They also ensure that colleagues have accountability and the highest standards of professionalism. Therefore, this project is perceived to be consistent with the objectives set forth by the Prime Minister of Malaysia: to jointly create more outstanding teachers for the nation. Instructional supervision was previously seen as a way to improve teacher quality, often as a process of teacher evaluation, and not focused on the process supervising teachers for the improvement of their practice. This project aims to transfer knowledge and skillsof Developmental Instructional Supervision (DIS) based on the model introduced by Glickman, Gordon and Ross-Gordon (2010). The Model comprises four approaches of supervision, ranging from directive to non-directive approaches. The project uses the action research approach to be carried out in three phases. Phase 1 is the identification of teacher readiness to adopt the DIS and the four approachesto be introduced, as well as to play the role of supervisors to their colleagues in a system of collegial supervision. Phase 2 focuses on the transfer of knowledge and skills of DIS, to a small group of teachers identified to lead the supervision process in schools. Emphasis is given to the identification of exemplary practices and the developmental nature of supervision. Phase 3 stresses on the strengthening and developing the process of clinical supervision and observation techniques, and other tasks of supervision, and support activities, which at the same time will be developing a culture of continuous teacher professional development, through systematic instructional supervision. For this paper, the authors share a discussion of phase 1 where teachers’ knowledge, experience, hopes and aspirations as well as frustrations were gathered through focus group discussions at selected schools.