Purpose: To obtain epidemiologic data of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly in Malaysia and to study the effect of the anomaly on key pinch strength.
Methods: Two hundred ninety two healthy subjects (162 females and 130 males) were examined bilaterally for the presence of the Linburg-Comstock anomaly. Each subject¿s key pinch strength was measured bilaterally using a pinch meter.
Results: The Linburg-Comstock anomaly was present in 101 of the 292 subjects (35%). Twenty two percent of the subjects had it unilaterally, and 12% had it bilaterally. The anomaly was associated with superior key pinch strength.
Conclusions: Linburg-Comstock anomaly is common and correlates with superior key pinch strength.
Clinical Relevance: The study provides epidemiologic data of this anomaly in Malaysia and considers its anatomical influence on key pinch strength.
Pylorobranchus hoi, A New Genus and Species of
Myrophine Worm-eel from Taiwan (Anguilliformes:
- Pylorobranchus hoi, a new genus and species of myrophine worm-eel from Taiwan (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae). Pylorobranchus gen. nov. McCosker and Chen is described. It differs from other genera of myrophin ophichthids by possessing a fleshy epidermal lappet in advance of the gill opening, and in the condition of its elevated posterior nostril location, elongated jaws and dentition, its laterally compressed body, and elevated median fins. Pylorobranchus hoi sp. nov. McCosker, Loh and Lin, the type species, is described from 3 specimens caught by hook-and-line off eastern Taiwan. A key to the genera of myrophine ophichthids is provided.
Patronage Politics and Natural Resources: A
Case Study of Malaysia and Singapore.
As the modernisation of agribusiness became a more important driver of development for many Southeast Asian states, the region’s environment has become severely degraded. This paper argues that throughout the developmental history of Southeast Asia, the role of patronage politics has been a key factor behind environmental degradation. This paper focuses on Malaysia and Singapore as select case studies to show how political realities encourage patronage politics in the pursuit of development. It presents historical evidence concerning the circumstances preceding and surrounding early appearances of patronage networks in these countries, particularly within the natural resource sector. It argues that upon decolonization, the attitudes of the decision-making elite of these countries region shaped development to focus on elite-centred natural resource exploitation. With government structures, processes and policies often favouring the interests of big businesses, environmental exploitation has remained the major drivers of growth in these countries. This paper is part two of a two-part series by the same author, the first part of which focused on Southeast Asia in general and Indonesia in particular, and appeared in the previous volume of this journal.
A Bilingual Child's Acquisition of Mandarin and English: Same or Different Rate?
This paper is descriptive in nature. It looks at the utterances of one Malaysian-Chinese bilingual child who was specifically spoken to in Mandarin and English from birth. The aim of this paper is to highlight the different speech components present in the two languages. There is some evidence to show that the child's preferred language is not necessarily the dominant language. The child was observed closely by the researcher cum mother over a period of seven months. Initial utterances were tape recorded but later discarded due to impracticality. Subsequent utterances were then spontaneously recorded into journals as and when they occurred within the child’s home with details such as time, date, place and participants indicated. Transcribed orthographically, data were then categorized according to the languages heard and then the speech components (see Hoff, 2009; Foster-Cohen, 1999; Crystal, 1997) respectively. A frequency count of all these utterances suggests that 59% of the child’s utterances were in English while 19% were in Mandarin (dominant language) with smaller percentages subscribing to the various environmental languages. Data also indicate that more nouns were used in English and but slightly more verbs and noun phrases were used in Mandarin. This phenomenon was also used as a determinant to gauge the rate of acquisition of the two languages. A very small percentage of the child’s data were also articulated as complete sentences but this was done in mixed languages, which could be a typical phenomenon of bilingual language acquisition at the early stage.
Politeness of Front Counter Staff of Malaysian Private
-Politeness is an important social element in the Malaysian society and it is gauged by the way people behave towards each other during interactions. In this context, politeness is taken to mean good manners such as greeting, acknowledging and thanking others. Taking the cue from the Malaysian government which emphasizes on showing good manners, this paper examines the public transactions of front counter staff and patients in nine Malaysian private hospitals. Focus was given to the use of openings and closings in 158 transactions which were extracted over a period of three months via close observations which were allowed by the gatekeepers manning the front counters. Data were then orthographically transcribed. Brown and Levinson’s (1987) notion of politeness and the Malaysian concept of good manners such as greeting and thanking were applied as a framework. Our analysis indicates that front counter staff in private hospitals employed more impolite openings but at the end of the transactions, they used more polite closings. A closer analysis of the data indicates that these polite closings were often given in response to patients’ initiations. Although our findings are small in comparison, we believe they will benefit researchers of communication, curriculum designers and practitioners as these findings clearly indicate that there is a need for professional communication skills to be taught and implemented in service industries.